Virtual Tracking: An imaginary line created by the viewer while they follow the motion path of an object in a scene
In Dunkirk, virtual tracking is used quite frequently during the dofight scenes; preferably when shot at a distance to allow the user a wider view of what is happening in the skies above. In this example, a German fighter plane (Messerschmitt 109) enters the frame from the left side and passes across to the right in the background. The viewer’s vision is drawn to the horizontally moving object and in return results in virtual tracking.
Saving Private Ryan (1998):
Deep Space: The illusion of creating three-dimensional depth on a flat screen surface; heightened by the use of depth cues.
In the opening scene of Saving Private Ryan, a group of marines are storming Omaha beach, Green Dog Sector while being under heavy enemy fire. Throughout the various shots of the sixteen-minute-long opener, various techniques are used to give the illusion of depth in an attempt to make the viewer feel as though they are on the beach with the soldiers. By placing Czech Headgehogs (the large “X” shaped steel items littered along the shoreline), having bodies lay further away from the camera as well as close up and Higgins boats driving up to the shore, the final image is given a great series of depth as we move around the location. For the example above, the camera moves from left to right, following a soldier as he makes his way to the sea wall for cover. As we move along with him, items pass right in front of us as if we were running by them, whereas items further away stay in frame and exit the frame later on. This parallax effect helps to increase the sense of depth in the shot and further immerse the viewer into the scene.
Kingsmen: The Secret Service (2014)
Size Difference: The use of an objects size to determine where it is located in 3D space and to increase the appearance of depth.
In Kingsmen: The Secret Service, Harry enters a church to meet with the antagonist but finds the place to be empty with the exception of a large number of church-goers. As he starts to leave the antagonist activates a device which causes those in its audible proximity to be filled with intense anger, aggression and as a result, strength. In the first example shot, we can see that Harry is closest to the foreground rather than the others due to his towering stature over them. The woman condeming him to Hell as he leaves is in the midground, for she is slightly in focus with Harry but noticably shorter; further away from the camera. The other church-goers in the back, even those of a tall stature, appear shorter than Harry or the woman, as they are in the background of the shot and further away from the camera than the other two characters. They are also out of focus which helps us keep out attention on Harry and the woman following him as he tries to leave. The use of size difference in this shot helps to give the illusion of depth to show not only how great in size the church is, but also make the user feel as though they are cramped inside with all of those people. The same rules apply to the second image in which Harry pulls his gun on the woman (being controlled by the antagonist’s device). He is in focus and in the foreground; appearing larger. Meanwhile in the background and out of focus is another tall male character, but he appears shorter than Harry. The camera zooms out to intensify this effect, ending with Harry shooting the woman at point-blank; her head snapping back towards the camera and again increasing the sense of depth in the shot.
Mood board (1/24/19):